Novelists and other literary figures of the time, paint opium in a far less favorable light. Edgar Allan Poe thrusts his narrator in the short story, Ligeia, into such a distraught stupor that he can no longer distinguish fantasy from reality. Other nineteenth century writers feature the drug and its use in connection with crime and lower class foreign immigrants
A wisp, a whiff, a vivid dream,
a ghost, a haunt, a lurid scheme,
a spook, a wraith, a macabre dance,
a fiend, a shade, a squandered chance.
--- e.a.s. demers